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    Output of the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale predictive model, produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats. The extent of the mapped area includes the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, and areas of the North Eastern Atlantic extending from the Canary Islands in the south to the Barents Sea in the north. The map was produced using a "top-down" modelling approach using classified habitat descriptors to determine a final output habitat. Habitat descriptors differ per region but include: Biological zone Energy class Oxygen regime Salinity regime Seabed substrate Riverine input Habitat descriptors (excepting Substrate) are calculated using underlying physical data and thresholds derived from statistical analyses or expert judgement on known conditions. The model is produced using R and Arc Model Builder (10.1). The model was created using raster input layers with a cell size of 0.00104dd (roughly 100 metres). The model includes the sublittoral zone only; due to the high variability of the littoral zone, a lack of detailed substrate data and the resolution of the model, it is difficult to predict littoral habitats at this scale. EUSeaMap is classified into EUNIS 2019 level 3 (or more detailed levels where appropriate), EUNIS 2019 level 2 , EUNIS 2007-2011, the MSFD benthic broad habitat types, the HELCOM HUB classification in the Baltic, and the recently revised habitat classification in the Mediterranean. In the Black Sea, EUSeaMap is not classified into EUNIS 2007-2011 (due to inapplicability), but is classified according to a classification that was developed by EMODnet Seabed Habitats (Populus et a, 2017, and for a revised version Vasquez et al, 2020, See Online resources). Reports that provide methods used for the classification of the predicted habitats into the new 2019 EUNIS classification, regional classifications, and MSFD BBHT (v.2017) are linked in Online Resources. Reports on the methods used in the previous versions of EUSeaMap (v2016 and V2019) are linked in on Online Resources- a new report is in progress. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission.

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    This dataset shows the extent for some of Scotland's AnnexI habitats and physiographic features, extracted from the Geodatabase of Marine features adjacent to Scotland (GeMS) database (v24_1). Data include: - Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (H1110) - Estuaries (H1130) - Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide (H1140) - Coastal Lagoons (H1150) - Large shallow inlets and bays (H1160) - Reefs (H1170) The dataset represents the Scottish portion of the UK dataset submitted as part of the Article 17 of the Habitats Directive reporting in 2019.

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    Classified seabed substrate types for European seas. Produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model, based on a combination of EMODnet Geology seabed substrate products and biological substrates extracted form individual habitat maps from surveys around European seas. The extent of the mapped area includes the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, and areas of the North Eastern Atlantic extending from the Canary Islands in the south to the Barents Sea in the north. The layer of seabed substrate was produced using data from EMODnet geology at the following scales: - 1:25k, 1:30k, 1:45k, 1:60k, 1:70k (a new fine scale layer as of 2021) - 1:50k 1:100k,1:250k (these were updated for 2021) - 1:1M (not updated for 2021) Biological substrates were included in the 2021 version of EUSeaMap to assist in the classification of biogenic habitats for the 2019 version of EUNIS. The Folk 5 classification of substrate is adopted because it is compatible with both the 2007-11 and 2019 versions of EUNIS, both of which have been applied in EUSeaMap 2021. Detailed information on the modelling process for the 2016 is found in the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical report and its appendices (Populus et al, 2017, link in Resources). We are working on an updated report for the 2021 version.

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    This layer shows the current known extent and distribution of Coralligenous and other calcareous bioconcretions in the Mediterranean, collated by EMODnet Seabed Habitats. The purpose was to produce a data product that would provide the best compilation of evidence for this habitat, as described in the "Action Plan for the protection of the coralligenous and other calcareous bio-concretions in the Mediterranean". This data product contains large data gaps and should be viewed as incomplete.

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    Arctic mask shapefile produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model. Used in as a proxy to delimit the Arctic zone and it is used to classify shallow habitats into Arctic habitat classes as required by the EUNIS (V. 2019) habitat classification. The masks covers areas in the Barents Sea which are North of the polar front or where ice concentration exceeded 20% on average in 2018. The 20% threshold was derived from WMO ice classification and corresponds to "Very open drift ice". Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium. Reports detailing the methods used in the previous versions of EUSeaMap (v2016 and V2019) are linked in online resources. A new report is in progress. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission.

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    Shapefile showing areas where ice concentration in the Barents Sea in 2018 was on average more than 20%. The 20% threshold was derived from WMO ice classification and corresponds to "Very open drift ice". Data averaged by Ifremer and NIVA derived from CMEMS (Copernicus) ice concentration product (resolution 1km, temporal resolution 1 year- 2018). Used in EUSeaMap 2021 to create the Arctic mask layer as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium. Reports detailing the methods used in the previous versions of EUSeaMap (v2016 and V2019) are linked in online resources. A new report is in progress. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission.

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    Confidence in the classification of the EUNIS v 2019 habitat types in the EUSeaMap (2021) broad-scale predictive habitat map. Values are 1 (low confidence), 2 (moderate confidence) or 3 (high confidence). The final habitat type is classified by overlaying several layers of information; these layers of information are collectively known as 'habitat descriptors'. Habitat descriptors differ per region but include: Biological zone Energy class Oxygen regime Salinity regime Seabed substrate Riverine input The confidence in the classification of the habitat type is taken as the minimum of the confidence in all of the relevant habitat descriptors at that location. Confidence values are also available for each habitat descriptor and input data layer. Detailed information on the modelling process is found in the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical reports and its appendices (links in Resources). Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission. It is important to note that a habitat type confidence score is only relevant to that particular level of the classification system.

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    Energy class layer produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model. The extent of the mapped area includes the Baltic Sea, and areas of the North Eastern Atlantic and Arctic extending from the Canary Islands in the south to Norway in the North. The map of energy classes was produced using underlying wave and current data and thresholds derived from statistical analyses or expert judgement on known conditions. This layer is the same as the input used in EUSeaMap 2019. Detailed information on the modelling process for the 2016 is found in the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical report and its appendices (Populus et al, 2017, link in Resources). We are working on an updated report for the 2019 version.

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    Confidence in the classification of substrate type in the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale predictive habitat map. Values are on a range from 1 (Low confidence) to 3 (High confidence). Substrate type is one of the layers of information used to categorise physical habitat types in EUSeaMap; these layers of information are collectively known as 'habitat descriptors'. The substrate layer confidence was obtained from reclassification and standardisation of the confidence scores associated with each primary layer used to create the Substrate types layer. Detailed information on the modelling process for the 2016 is found in section 2.7.2 of the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical report and its appendices (Populus et al, 2017, link in Resources). We are working on an updated report for the 2021 version.

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    Confidence in the classification of the EUNIS/full-detail habitat types in the EUSeaMap (2021) broad-scale predictive habitat map. Values are 1 (low confidence), 2 (moderate confidence) or 3 (high confidence). The final habitat type is classified by overlaying several layers of information; these layers of information are collectively known as 'habitat descriptors'. Habitat descriptors differ per region but include: Biological zone Energy class Oxygen regime Salinity regime Seabed substrate Riverine input The confidence in the classification of the habitat type is taken as the minimum of the confidence in all of the relevant habitat descriptors at that location. Confidence values are also available for each habitat descriptor and input data layer. Detailed information on the modelling process is found in the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical reports and its appendices (links in Resources). Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission. It is important to note that a habitat type confidence score is only relevant to that particular level of the classification system. For example, a cell of A3.1 high energy infralittoral rock with ‘low’ energy class confidence, ‘moderate’ biozone confidence and ‘high’ substrate type confidence would have an overall ‘low’ confidence. However, moving up the hierarchy to EUNIS level two (A3 infralittoral rock) removes the energy class; therefore, the confidence of the EUNIS level two habitat type would only consider the ‘moderate’ biozone confidence and ‘high’ substrate type confidence, resulting in an overall ‘moderate’ confidence.