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    This file contains data on numerical abundance of micronekton organisms, mostly decapods, cephalopods, and cnidarians collected in winter (December 2009) and summer (July 2010) in the Balearic Islands region. A relatively small area was repeatedly sampled throughout the day. Samples were obtained by means of a double-warp modified commercial mid-water trawl, with standard pelagic trawl doors (otter boards) and graded-mesh netting to the cod-end (10 mm). Hauls were horizontal and lasted between 30 min and 1 hour, and the depth of the net was controlled by a SCANMAR system. Samples were identified on board or frozen for a later identification in the laboratory. These data were obtained within the project: "Estructura y dinámica del ecosistema bentopelágico de talud en dos zonas oligotróficas del Mediterráneo: una aproximación multidisciplinar y a distintas escalas temporales en las Islas Baleares", financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación CTM2007-65844-C03.

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    This file contains data on numerical abundance of early stages of fishes (mostly larvae) in winter (December 2009) and summer (July 2010) in the Balearic Islands region. A relatively small area was repeatedly sampled throughout the day. Samples were obtained by means of a 0.25 m2 MultiNet HYDRO-BIOS (Weikert and John, 1981) in winter, and a Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System (Wiebe et al., 1985), MOCNESS-1 m2, in summer. Hauls were performed both day and night, discriminating different layers and mainly in the epipelagic zone. Samples were fixed on board and stored in a 5% buffered formalin and seawater for later sorting and identification in the laboratory. These data were obtained within the project: "Estructura y dinámica del ecosistema bentopelágico de talud en dos zonas oligotróficas del Mediterráneo: una aproximación multidisciplinar y a distintas escalas temporales en las Islas Baleares", financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación CTM2007-65844-C03.

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    This file contains data on numerical abundance of mesopelagic fishes collected in winter (December 2009) and summer (July 2010) in the Balearic Islands region. A relatively small area was repeatedly sampled throughout the day. Samples were obtained by means of a double-warp modified commercial mid-water trawl, with standard pelagic trawl doors (otter boards) and graded-mesh netting to the cod-end (10 mm). Hauls were horizontal and lasted between 30 min and 1 hour, and the depth of the net was controlled by a SCANMAR system. Samples were identified on board or frozen for a later identification in the laboratory. These data were obtained within the project: "Estructura y dinámica del ecosistema bentopelágico de talud en dos zonas oligotróficas del Mediterráneo: una aproximación multidisciplinar y a distintas escalas temporales en las Islas Baleares", financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación CTM2007-65844-C03.

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    Mesopelagic fishes experience an extreme body transformation from larvae to adults. DNA barcoding has been useful in establishing phylogenetic relationships among mesopelagic and other deep-sea fishes, however no molecular evidence to confirm the identity of their larvae was available so far. Molecular analyses were conducted to identify the larvae and adults of 18 species of the most abundant and frequent mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean, across 14 genera. For myctophids, 7 of 9 species of the subfamily Lampanyctinae and all species from Myctophinae (6) were analysed. At least 565 nucleotides of the mtDNA CO1 region were sequenced. The 12S rRNA region was selected for C. braueri and C. pygmaea (372 nucleotides). Pairwise nucleotide distances were notably higher inter- than intraspecifically allowing to discern between congeners such as Cyclothone braueri and C. pygmaea, Hygophum benoiti and H. hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus and L. pusillus, and Notoscopelus bolini and N. elongatus. The good fit between larvae and adult sequences for each species proved the accuracy of earlier larval descriptions based on morphology and pigmentation characters. A list of the genetic markers used to identify each species with their accession numbers in Genbank is provided here along with their developmental stage, sampling location and depth.