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    The present data were collected from two cruises that took place in the Canary Current from September 10 to October 1, 2002 (COCA I) and from May 21 to June 7, 2003 (COCA II). The study was conducted along two zonal sections (21ºN and 26ºN) extending from the coastal upwelling to the open ocean at 26ºW, and focused on the epipelagic (0-200 m) and mesopelagic (200-1000 m) zones. The cruises consisted of a total of 31 hydrographic stations and 10 biogeochemical stations, half of them along each section, which were roughly equidistant. At each station seawater samples were collected at fixed depths in the biogeochemical stations every 50 m for suspended POC, DOC and ETS activity by means of a Seabird 911+ CTD, mounted on a General Oceanics rosette sampler equipped with 24 10L-Niskin bottles. Free-drifting sediment traps were deployed for 24 h at each biogeochemical station to collect sinking particles at 200 m depth.

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    During three cruises in the Mid Atlantic Ridge area in 2016 and 2017, we studied the biomass of mesopelagic fish and its potential as a source of protein and oil for animal feed and human consumption. We collected samples of mesopelagic species down to a depth of 600?m, studied fish behaviour, identified and quantified the species composition of the catches, analysed the chemical composition of the catch samples, and evaluated the presence of unwanted substances. Results showed that Maurolicus muelleri (Mueller's pearlside) and Benthosema glaciale (Glacier lantern fish) were the most abundant fish species in our samples and catches containing 80% fish can be a good source of protein and marine lipids including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3). Unwanted substances, except for Cd and As, were present at levels far lower than the limits set by European Union regulations. However, our experiments identified challenges that may limit the efficiency of commercial operations in the Northeast Atlantic. Combined real-time optical and/or multifrequency acoustic systems will be needed to improve species identification and ensure cost-effective fishing operations. Also, selective trawls that target only fish and release unwanted species are needed to secure high-quality oils and proteins.

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    As a proxy for zooplankton and micronekton biomass in the water column, acoustic backscatter intensity (dB), acquired using a Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (LADCP) down to ca. 4000 m depth along the Malaspina Expedition (CSD2008-00077). Datasets are from 7 different legs around the World (1-7): 1 Spain-Brazil, 2 Brazil-South Africa, 3 South Africa-West Australia, 4 West Australia-East Australia, 5 East Australia-Hawaii, 6 Hawaii-Panamá, 7 Panamá-Spain.

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    Surface and underwater solar irradiance were measured to support a nearby (within 500 m) cabled acoustic observatory (Prihartato et al. 2015, Christiansen et al. 2021, Kaartvedt et al. 2021) to study the behavior of mesopelagic fishes in Masfjorden, western Norway. Light measurements included i) registration of surface irradiance (PAR) every 15 minutes in the period from December 13, 2010 to August 17, 2011 and ii) wavelength resolved surface and underwater measurements on four selected dates in 2011.